7%, with significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (85.5% vs. 64.7%; p < 0.001). On age stratification (45–54 years, 55–64 years, 65–74 years and ?75 years), this gender difference (females > males) was significant (p < 0.001) across all the above-mentioned age groups. Females in the age group of 75 years and above had the highest prevalence (94.3%) of low vitamin D. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) in our rural cohort was 39.1%, with significantly higher prevalence in females compared to males (47.8% vs. 29.2%; p < 0.001). The same trend was observed with statistical significance across all age groups: 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, and ?75 years. The highest prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (59.6%) was seen in females in the age group of 75 years and above (Profile 2).
Percentages of the study population having (A) Low Vitamin D (<30 ng/ml) and Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) (B) Vitamin B12 deficiency and (C) Folic acid deficiency is graphically represented.
The overall prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml) in our rural subjects was 42.3%. There was no significant difference in prevalence between males and females (41.8% vs. 42.7%). However, among females, significantly higher prevalence was observed in the age group of 45–54 years (p = 0.014) There was no significant difference between age groups among males (Figure 2).
The overall prevalence of folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml) in our rural cohort was 11.1% There was significantly (p < 0.001) higher prevalence in males (13.9%) compared to females (8.6%). Among the different age groups, we found that subjects aged 75 years and above had the highest prevalence (19.9%, p < 0.001). In this oldest age group, females had a slightly higher prevalence compared to males (21.8% vs. 18.5%), though this difference was not statistically significant (Figure 2).
Our study aimed at determining the burden of vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiencies in an aging (?45 years), rural community from the state of Karnataka in southern India. Our results revealed that the overall prevalence of low vitamin D (<30 ng/ml), vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml), vitamin B12 deficiency (<200 pg/ml) and folic acid deficiency (<3 ng/ml) were 75.7%, 39.1%, 42.3%, and 11.1%, respectively. These results imply that this rural community had an overall higher burden of inadequate vitamins D and B12, with relatively low burden of folic acid deficiency.
The definition of adequate levels of vitamin D has undergone much debate in the recent past, with recommendations varying between different expert advisory bodies. For example, the US National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine) (19) recommends levels of 20 ng/ml and above as adequate, whereas the US Endocrine Society (20) and International Osteoporosis Foundation (21) recommendations classify levels of 20–29 ng/ml as “insufficient” and <20 ng/ml as “deficient.” In our study, we used two cut-off levels to categorize abnormal levels: <30 ng/ml was categorized as low vitamin D (to include both insufficiency and deficiency) and <20 ng/ml was categorized as vitamin D deficiency.
Seemingly faster knowledge towards supplement D deficiency was basically achieved during the tropical regions versus temperate countries (22). Moreover, about records regarding scarce details about nutritional D updates from Indians into the rural teams, our very own finding that over around three-fourths from the outlying Indian inhabitants had reasonable nutritional D try extremely about the. And also this happens from the conventional look at that people out-of tropical nations, which discovered sunlight all year long, will probably has actually enough quantities of vitamin D. You can things about brand new particularly large prevalence in this cohort are older population with limited outside passion, expanding adaptation and you will accessibility computers for agricultural performs (thus, decreasing heavy lifting in the great outdoors areas) chatroulette and you can terrible weight reduction way to obtain vitamin D, since the majority men and women have no or limited consumption regarding chicken situations and you will milk products is not equally strengthened all over the country.